Text Box: Environment & We 
An International Journal of Science & Technology
 ISSN: 0975-7112 (Print) 				ISSN: 0975-7120 (Online)

Volume 14, Number 2

July-December  2019

Environ. We Int. J. Sci. Tech. 14 (2019) 143-157                            Full Paper

An Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Varanasi District using Water Quality Index and Multivariate Statistical Techniques


Deepak Guptaa, GurudattaSingha, Amit Kumar Patela, ReetikaShuklab,

Upanishad Mishrab, Virendra Kumar Mishraa*

aInstitute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

bDepartment of Environmental Science, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, MP, India

*Email: virendra78@gmail.com




 Water is one of the most indispensable resources and is the elixir of life. Modern civilization, industrialization, urbanization and increasing populations have led to rapid degradation of groundwater quality. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the world’s population use groundwater for drinking. Those around Varanasi depend totally on groundwater resources. Heavy and constant groundwater use, without restriction, is lowering both the water table and water quality. Any type of contamination present in groundwater, will leads to several health related problems. Owing to this pressure on resources, the water quality around Varanasi, in the middle Ganga plain, was studied. Twelve water quality parameters (iron, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, pH, TDS, alkalinity, turbidity, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and hardness)were investigated relating to 2015/16 for eight blocks of Varanasi district. Groundwater quality was calculated by using correlation, principle component analysis (PCA) and water quality index (WQI).In general, good water quality was found in all but one block KashiVidyaPeeth has poor water quality.


Keywords: WQI; Varanasi; MDWS; Principal component analysis (PCA); Central Ground Water Board (CGWB).